Eshhad Issue Brief: Egypt’s Blasphemy Laws

While freedom of religion is constitutionally guaranteed, Article 98(f) of the Penal Code forbids “insulting or denigrating the heavenly religions.”

This law is used almost exclusively against those who blaspheme Islam, and disproportionately targets minorities; Sunni Muslims are also targeted as a means of maintaining orthodoxy.

The use of blasphemy charges has increased markedly since 2011, under both Islamist and secular governments, and continues since the 2013 removal of President Muhammad Morsi.

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